Dr Jack Pike


Selected Published Papers

with Titles, Abstracts and Author's comments.

Hypersonic Flow , C.F.D. , Waveriders , Dusty Flow , Boundary Layers
Text compression , Wind Tunnels , Space , Free Molecular Flow

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Hypersonic Aerodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Back to Menu

The flow and forces on shapes at Mach numbers in excess of 5.

Lift , drag and thrust at high flight Mach number.
Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. Lond. A (1999), Vol. 357, No. 1759. pp 2141-2149. Aug. 1999.

Similarity parameters for the comparison of the lift and drag of lifting vehicles at high flight Mach numbers.

The choice of propellants: a similarity analysis of scramjet second stages.
Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. Lond. A (1999), Vol. 357, No. 1759. pp 2357-2378. Aug. 1999.

Relationships between vehicle volume, launch mass and payload mass for scramjet powered vehicles.

Forebody Design for the Aerospaceplane.
by L. H. Townend, J. Pike, T. R. F. Nonweiler and E. Ann Parker.
AIAA 90-2472, AIAA/SAE/ASME/ASEE 26th Joint Propulsion Conference, Orlando, FL, July 16-18 1990.

A spatular nose design for the Aerospaceplane.

Minimum forebody drag in hypersonic continuum and rarefied flows.
The Aeronautical Journal, June 2006, Vol. 110, No. 1108, pp 369-374.

Analytic expressions for the drag of Newton's minimum drag body and other shapes.

Minimum Drag Bodies of Given Length and Base using Newtonian Theory.
AIAA Journal, Vol 15, No 6, June 1977, pp. 769-770. (doi: 10.2514/3.60705)

As the nose length is made shorter, the minimum drag nose shape flips from a blunt axisymmetric to a flat "spatular" nose shape.

Hypersonic minimum drag forebodies with blunt leading edges.
The Aeronautical Journal, Vol 117, May 2013, No. 1191, pp. 553-557.

The effect of blunting on the pressure drag of minimum drag hypersonic forebodies.

Lift and Drag of Axisymmetric Bodies in Newtonian Flow.
AIAA Journal, Vol 7, No 1, Jan 1969, pp. 185-186. (doi: 10.2514/3.5071)

In this paper and the three below, analytic expressions for the aerodynamic forces and moments on general body shapes are derived using a differential representation of the Newtonian approximation of hypersonic flow. The expressions are applied to determining optimum shapes and evaluating the mean forces on bodies in oscillatory or rotational motion.

Newtonian Lift and Drag of Blunt Cone Cylinder Bodies.
AIAA Journal, Vol 10, No 2, Feb 1972, pp. 176-180. (doi: 10.2514/3.6556)


Newtonian Aerodynamic forces from Poisson's Equation.
AIAA Journal, Vol 11, No 4, April 1973, pp. 499-504. (doi: 10.2514/3.8778)


Moments and Forces on General Convex Bodies in Hypersonic Flow.
AIAA Journal, Vol 12, No 9, Sept 1974, pp. 1241-1247. (doi: 10.2514/3.49460)

Discrete aerodynamic values for the body are expanded to give the forces and moments over a wide orientation range.

Centred Compressions from Two-Dimensional Supersonic Sails.
Ingenieur-Archiv, No 41, 1972, pp. 377-380. (doi: 10.1007/BF00533140)

Summary. It is shown that a two-dimensional constant tension sail in a high Mach number stream, will support a nearly centred isentropic compression.
Comment. The shape of a 2D sail in steady supersonic flow is shown to closely resemble that of a centred compression. Thus, to a close approximation, the shape, flowfield and performance of the sail is known.

Computational Fluid Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Back to Menu

Methods for computing fluid flows.

Riemann Solvers for Perfect and Near-Perfect Gases.
AIAA Journal, Vol 31, No 10, Oct 1993, pp1801-1808. (doi: 10.2514/3.11852)
doi: 10.2514/3.11852
The Riemann equations are re-written in terms of 3 similarity parameters and a weak dependence on the ratio of specific heats. The similarity parameters are used as a basis for assessing the accuracy of some existing approximate solvers for the Riemann problem and to speed up calculation methods for the exact solution.

Grid Adaptive Algorithms for the solution of the Euler Equations on Irregular Grids.
Journal of Computational Physics, Vol 71, No 1, July 1987, pp. 194-223. (DOI: 10.1016/0021-9991(87)90027-1)

Standard second order accurate algorithms can give inaccurate flow calculations when used on irregular grids. It is shown how the algorithms can be adapted to give the same quality of results on irregular grids as the existing algorithms give on evenly spaced grids.

Notes on the structure of viscous and numerically-captured shocks.
The Aeronautical Journal, Vol 89, No 889, Nov. 1985.

The Navier-Stokes equations are solved analytically to give solutions for the flow within a viscous shock wave. The solutions are used to suggest an explanation for the entropy spike often associated with numerically calculated shock waves.

Accelerated Convergence of Jameson's Finite-Volume Scheme Using Van Der Houwen Integrators.
by J. Pike and P. L. Roe, Computers & Fluids, Vol 13, No 2, pp 223-236, 1985.
The convergence rate of the Jameson flow computational scheme is improved by using a more efficient integration system.

Efficient Construction and Utilisation of Approximate Riemann Solutions.
by P. L. Roe and J. Pike, Proc. of the sixth int'l. symposium on Computing methods in applied sciences and engineering, VI, Pages 499-518 North-Holland Publishing Co. Amsterdam, 1985 . ISBN:0-444-87597-2
Direct evaluation of the averages used in Roe type Riemann solvers without finding the average Jacobian matrix.

Waveriders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Back to Menu

Integrated aircraft shapes for high supersonic speeds which use the shock waves to generate lift and volume.

A Method for Designing Lifting Configurations For High Supersonic Speeds, Using Axisymmetric Flow Fields.
by J. G. Jones, K. C. Moore, J. Pike and P. L. Roe. Ingenieur-Archiv, 37, Band, 1 Heft, 1968, pp. 56-72.
A classic waverider paper from the team that turned the Nonweiler caret wing into a feasible integrated aircraft shape.

On Lifting Surfaces Supporting One or More Plane Shock Waves.
Aeronautical Research Council, Reports and Memoranda No. 3623. April 1966.

Increasing the L/D of waveriders.

The Pressure on Flat and Anhedral Delta Wings with Attached Shock Waves.
Aeronautical Quarterly, Vol XXIII, Pt. 4, Nov 1972, pp. 253-258.

Surface pressure distributions and performance of caret wings off-design or supersonic swept corners.

Minimum drag Surfaces of given Lift which Support Two-Dimensional Supersonic Flow Fields.
Aeronautical Research Council, Reports & Memoranda No.3543, HMSO, London, Sept. 1966.

The optimum two-dimensional lifting surfaces with minimum pressure drag are shown to be kinked wedges.

Optimum engine thrust deflection for high-speed cruising aircraft
Aeronautical Research Council, Current paper 1222, London HMSO 1972.

Shows that the optimum thrust deflection is significantly greater than that from assuming constant L/D.

On Conical Waveriders.
R.A.E. Technical Report No. 70090, May 1970.

Waverider compression surfaces using stream surfaces from conical supersonic flow fields.

Wing-body Shapes from Known Supersonic Flow Fields.
R.A.E. Technical Report No. 70235, Dec. 1970.

Waveriders at low supersonic Mach numbers which have identifiable wings and bodies.

Efficient Waveriders from Known Axisymmetric Flow Fields.
1st Hypersonic Waverider Symposium, Oct. 17-19, 1990, Univ. of Maryland, USA.

Shape analysis and performance improvement of a wide range of waveriders from axisymmetric flow fields.
Results based on R.A.E Technical Memorandum Aero 1247. Aug. 1970.

See also Wind Tunnel reports.

Dusty Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Back to Menu

Flow in a gas supporting small solid or liquid particles.

Analytic Solutions for Dusty Shock Waves.
AIAA Journal, Vol 32, No 5, May 1994, pp. 979-984.
doi: 10.2514/3.12083
Under certain conditions the equations for shock wave in a flow carrying dust particles yields analytical solutions. These solutions demonstrate a range of flow features and provide a series of test cases for comparison with numerical computations.

The Drag of Spheres at Porosities Ranging from an Isolated Sphere to a Packed Bed.
College of Aeronautics Report No 9012, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Beds, UK, July 1990.

The drag of a sphere is affected by the proximaty of adjacent particles. A simple expression is given for the drag of a sphere which is applicable from a single sphere to a packed particle flow.

Internal Ballistics using Two Different Propellant Grain Form Functions.
College of Aeronautics Report No 9003, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Beds, UK, Jan. 1990.

Proposes a different particle burning rate expression which improves the computed gun internal pressures so that they are closer to the experimentally measured pressures.

Boundary Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Back to Menu

The viscous flow layer adjacent to a solid boundary.

Comment on "New Similarity Solutions for Hypersonic Boundary Layers with Application to Inlet Flows.
Parts 1 & 2. AIAA Journal, Vol 34 No 7, pp. 1536-1537, July 1996.
doi: 10.2514/3.13268
Two comments are made on G. R. Inger's paper AIAA Journal, Vol 33, No 11, pp. 2080-2086, Nov. 1995.
Part 1 points out that the theoretically derived boundary layer profile found in Inger's paper, cannot be matched exactly at its upstream starting point, thus the boundary layer will not conform to the theoretical prediction particularly near its upstream end. Professor Inger in his reply adds an additional condition of a prescribed discontinuous jump in the wall surface temperature, when an engineering match to the profiles can be made, which allows the theoretical predictions to be close to the boundary layer values for this case.
Part 2 demonstrates that the four separate boundary layer solutions presented are particular cases of a more general solution.

Intakes and Boundary Layer Crossflows for Hypersonic Vehicles.
by L. H. Townend, T. R. F. Nonweiler, E. G. Broadbent, J. Pike and G. Pagin.
AIAA 91-2160, AIAA/SAE/ASME/ASEE 27th Joint Propulsion Conference, June 24-26 1991, Sacramento, California.

Reduction of boundary layer bleeds and ducting in hypersonic intakes.

Text Compression and number recognition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Back to Menu

Coding text to use less computer storage space.

Text compression using a 4 bit coding scheme.
The Computer Journal, Vol 24, No 4, 1981.

The independence of letter and word frequencies in natural English text is used to derive a simple 4-bit coding scheme which reduces memory storage requirements for the text by 50%.

Number Recognition

A free-format data input scheme written in standard FORTRAN (ANSI 66).
by G. F. Butler and J. Pike.
The Computer Journal, Vol 24, No 3, pp. 256-257, 1981.

A freeform number scheme, written for Fortran 66 but with wider application to number recognition.

Wind Tunnel Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Back to Menu

Experimental results from models in wind tunnels.

Experimental Results from Three Cone-Flow Waveriders.
Agard Conference Proceedings 30, Hypersonic Boundary Layers And Flow Fields, Royal Aeronautical Society, London, Ref. 12, p. 20, 1-3 May 1968.

Wind tunnel tests at Mach 4 show that cone-flow stream surfaces generate a region of cone flow at the design conditions and that they can support stable attached shock waves for a range of off-design conditions.

The 1-4-1 System of Jack Movements for the flexible Liners of Supersonic Tunnels.
by A. C. McIntosh and J.Pike
Journal of the Royal Aeronautical Society, Jan. 1979, pp 28-31.

A method of locally altering the curvature of flexible tunnel liners is derived, which gives minimal influence elsewhere along the plate.

Wind Tunnel Tests on Six Wing Body Models at M=4.
Aeronautical Research Council Current Paper 1074, HMSO, London, 1969.

Aerodynamics forces are measured on a series of simple wing and body shapes.

Space Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Back to Menu

Orbital theory and space structure dynamics.

Earth escape Regions near the Moon.
AIAA Journal, Vol 9, No 5, May 1971, pp. 948-950.
doi: 10.2514/3.6303
Shows that by using orbits out of the plane of the ecliptic, the potential of the Moon to assist in Earth escape is increased.

Comment on "Equilibrium Configurations and Energies of Rotating Cables in Space"
AIAA Journal Vol 27, No 9, pp. 1307, Sept. 1989. doi: 10.2514/3.10265
Comment on a paper by C. Y. Wang in the AIAA Journal, Vol 24, No 12, pp. 2010-2013, Dec. 1986. The stable cable shapes of Wang are disputed because a constant angular momentum constraint is omitted from Wang's minimum energy optimisation. It is also argued more directly that the type of shapes derived by Wang are unstable. Wang disputes the findings in the above published response following the comment. His refutation does not answer the objections. Comment would be welcome.

Free Molecular Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Back to Menu

Very low density flow, where the gas molecules have a mean free path length comparable to the object size.

Forces on Convex Bodies in Free Molecular flow.
AIAA Journal, Vol 13, No 11, Nov 1975, pp. 1454-1459
doi: 10.2514/3.7015
The forces on general body shapes in free molecular flow are derived analytically. They are integrated to derive the mean drag of rotating shapes.

Availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Back to Menu

Most of the papers can be downloaded by clicking on the reference, although there may be a charge.

Otherwise electronic copies of the papers can be obtained on application to the author by e-mail.
Also some libraries or institutions hold copies of the papers.

E-mail Jack Pike at
j a c k@ j a c k p i k e.c o.u k

Last amended:July 2014.